Thursday, 13 July 2017

Homophobia in the European Court of Human Rights

The Dissenting Opinion of Judge Dedov (the judge for the Russian Federation at the European Court of Human Rights) in the case of Bayev and Others v Russia has certainly raised some eyebrows. 

In dissenting from the majority judgment in Bayev, which strongly condemns legal provisions in Russia that prohibit the “propaganda of non‑traditional sexual relations aimed at minors”, Judge Dedov's remarks have been called, amongst other things, "outrageously homophobic" and "indefensible to the Western mentality".

I certainly agree with those who condemn Judge Dedov's stated views on homosexuality - which include offensive (but predictable) remarks linking homosexuality and paedophilia - but I also welcome Judge Dedov making his views explicit. 

Given that the European Court of Human Rights (and former European Commission of Human Rights) has always been, and continues to be, comprised of some individuals who are hostile to the development of LGBT human rights, I think it is important that those individuals make their views clear.

We usually only see, as in this case, homophobia explicitly expressed when a sexual orientation complaint is upheld by a majority and a judge feels motivated to voice his (it is usually "his", not "her") hostility. But such explicit expressions of homophobia should be welcomed, because knowing that such homophobia exists in the Court helps us to understand why sexual orientation discrimination complaints are often rejected. 

If there was no homophobia in Strasbourg, wouldn't the complaints by same-sex couples about the blanket exclusion from marriage in some contracting states have succeeded? Of course, Strasbourg judgments contain many politely formulated legal reasons when complaints about marriage discrimination based on sexual orientation are rejected, but only the most naive person would rule out that such reasons are "contaminated" (to use one of the Court's terms) by homophobia. 

Judge Dedov's expression of homophobic ideas in the Court is not unique. In fact, Judge Dedov is merely the latest in a long list of Strasbourg judges and former commissioners who have publicly expressed their antipathy to homosexuality. I think we should thank Judge Dedov for "coming out" on this issue, because he has provided those of us who aim to eliminate discrimination based on sexual orientation, by way of the European Convention on Human Rights, with a useful reminder: not all those in Strasbourg share our aspirations. 

Judge Dedov's homophobic dissenting opinion provides an opportunity to remember some other similar outbursts in Strasbourg. Here's my "top five": 
“While considering the respect due to the private life of a homosexual … we must not forget and must bear in mind that respect is also due to the people holding the opposite view, especially in a country populated by a great majority of such people who are completely against unnatural immoral practices.” Judge Zekia, 1981.  
“A distinction must be drawn between homosexuals who are such because of some kind of innate instinct or pathological constitution judged to be incurable and those whose tendency comes from a lack of normal sexual development or from habit or from experience or from other similar causes but whose tendency is not incurable. So far as the incurable category is concerned, the activities must be regarded as abnormalities or even as handicaps…” Judge Walsh, 1981  
“…adolescent homosexual relationships have a more negative impact on emotional and psychological development than heterosexual relationships. In these circumstances I think that there is an objective and sufficient justification … to set a different age for each type …” Mr Martinez (European Commission of Human Rights), 1997. 
“…if homosexuals had a right to be members of the armed forces their sexual orientation could become known either through them disclosing it or manifesting it in some way … I find that the … discharge [of homosexuals from the armed forces] as being necessary in a democratic society in the interests of national security and the prevention of disorder.” Judge Loucaides, 1999. 
"Homosexuals, like anybody else, have a right to be themselves and should not be the target of discrimination or any other adverse treatment because of their sexual orientation. However, they must, like any other persons with some peculiarity, accept that they may not qualify for certain activities which, by their nature and under certain circumstances, are incompatible with their lifestyle or peculiarity.” Judge Loucaides, 2008.

No comments:

Post a Comment

Note: only a member of this blog may post a comment.